© The Teaching Company, LLC. Is there a difference between the issues of Confederate statuary art and the issues that are attached to the memorials for Founding Fathers? A map can be really a symbolic depiction highlighting connections between pieces of a distance, including objects, locations, or themes. A great deal of what I have heard in the controversies centered around Charlottesville and around some of the other Confederate monuments, for instance Monument Avenue in Richmond, really cast these things in ideological terms. Monument has a way of fading into memorial, and sometimes memorial has a way of feeding into simply being a marker. Learn More: The Reconstruction Revolution. One of the most prominent Confederate monuments—the Robert E. Lee statue in Richmond, Virginia—is set to be removed by order of Gov. People talked about them as symbols of national sacrifice. Someone who wants to either add to or subtract from that fundamental reality of citizen seems to me is starting to push things in directions that I’m not terribly happy to see us go in. Allen Guelzo: There are injustices that have been swept behind curtains, and which have to be memorialized if we want to talk about a realistic history. Many of them, you go back and look at the history of those state flags, they added what we could call the Confederate flag as part of their state flag. We are circling back in many ways to many of the worst trends of the Gilded Age, of the Reconstruction period, where we’re seeing efforts to consciously take the vote away from certain segments of our population. Then when we think about the context of Jim Crow, in some ways, some of these monuments perhaps did go up as just general statements of loss and mourning and sentimentalism and nostalgia, but in many cases they go up as explicit monuments to white supremacy, using the words white supremacy in the text of the monument, such as in the one that was removed from downtown New Orleans. If you look at the orders that he hands out, he’s giving out very conventional orders about repelling fugitive slaves from Union Army camps, about returning fugitive slaves to their owners. Controversial statue of Confederate General Robert E. Lee, Charlottesville, Virginia. It’s a much more complex situation than we sometimes realize. The influx of public and private expenditures on monuments coincides with the lifespan of veterans from the conflict, as well as a pattern witnessed in other wars that commemorates major anniversaries. That break occurs around the 1954 Supreme Court decision of Brown v. Board of Education, ordering the desegregation of public schools. Most of these were put up in the 1880s and the 1890s, about the same time as the Confederate statues we’ve been talking about, and those were really put up as monuments. Following the war, slavery was outlawed everywhere in the United States. The Great Courses: How do you see this moment playing out over the next few years? Allen Guelzo: It’s curious to say this, but sometimes ignorance can be a good tonic. I think what both Ed and I are saying is that there are ominous signs in the life of our democracy. It’s very curious, because sometimes it means that the ideological origins of these protests don’t really have a whole lot to do with American culture at all. A black Confederate soldier is depicted marching in step with white Confederate soldiers. This is a list of Confederate monuments and memorials dedicated to the memory of those who served and died in service to the Confederate States during the American Civil War.. I think we can do that, and we can do that in a way that, as Lincoln said, “swells the chorus of the union under the direction of the better angels of our nature,” rather than giving in to a vindictiveness, sometimes a not terribly well-informed vindictiveness that we will in a short time end up regretting. Twenty slave-free states and five border states made up most of the Union. List of Union Civil War monuments and memorials - Wikipedia The other thing is that between the 1890s and 1930, this is when the generation of those who had been in the Confederate Army is starting to die off. I would say, “Knowing what I know about Robert E. Lee, I’m not really sure that’s what we want to put a statue up for.”, On the other hand, if someone comes to me and says, “Here’s a statue which has been in place since 1924, or since 1917. These guys in Charlottesville are seeking to restore white supremacy. The Confederacy dissolved and the country was reunited. I don’t mean ignorance in the sense of never having learned anything. That’s white supremacy, but if the group that’s tearing it down is a Marxist organization, is the pulling down of that itself an ideological statement for an ideology which, if anything, is even more reprehensible. Get notified of new articles from Phillip W. Magness and AIER. Union vs Confederate, North vs South. The Great Courses: Yeah. First, when we restrict our scope to physical statues and plaques, we find clear parallels between the construction patterns of Union and Confederate monuments. Allen Guelzo: Using the term Southerner itself as a generic term to refer to anyone who lives south of the Mason-Dixon line, that’s also got difficulties, because what’s a Southerner? The Confederacy was rejected by the larger Union and was seen as illegal. Ed O’Donnell: It’s been a great conversation. Early Civil Rights: Washington or Du Bois? The current debate over taking down Confederate monuments gives me a … Another interesting option is to build competing or complementing narrative memorials. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where copyright is otherwise reserved. Whose heritage? They were making statements about the justice and the rightness and the pureness of the Union cause, but as the generation that had actually done the fighting fades away, the monuments gradually became more in the nature of memorials. I believe the inscription >just says "LEE"....actually there was nothing more to be said... Can >the Yankees match this? Sometimes this kind of radicalism exists on the right and the left going back well back into American history. The dead end of mutual recrimination to which this choice leads is already clear. Often, statues reflect the time period in which they were erected, more than the statue itself. The monument in question, in the clip shown here, is the so-called standing soldier statue, a symbolic monument to local individuals who fought in the Civil War. As statues of Confederate generals have been toppled or ordered down across the American South, all still stand in West Virginia, the only state born out of the American Civil War. Below is an overview of the status of just a few Confederate monuments around the country. At the same time, the statistical patterns for both types of monuments likely has a deeper explanation tied to the influence of Civil War veterans as a sizable political constituency. With no small irony, these new targets include figures that several leading historians and journalistic outlets took pains to differentiate and insulate from the Confederate statue controversies only a few years ago. They’re not really statements about power. That is what time tends to do to these things. Perhaps the defenders of Confederate monuments will demonstrate their good faith by pressing for funding for new monuments to Southerners, white and black, who fought on behalf of the Union … They came back maimed, or disinherited, or psychologically mauled, and in a way what they’re doing is they’re putting up monuments as last hoorahs to their own youth. We are now part of one country, and we have to live that way.”. In light of this movement, we're resurfacing a … It’s also a matter of discovering that, humanely speaking, we are full of people who made mistakes. I suspect that partly that’s true, but at the same time, the meanings shift over time. supercurrymax 5 months ago #1. Longstanding calls on government officials to remove statues associated with pro-slavery figures have given way to protest-fueled iconoclasm–statues and monuments once protested are now defaced and toppled in convulsive anger. Notably, after a group defaced a Confederate Soldiers & Sailors Monument in a public park in Birmingham, the mayor ordered its removal. supercurrymax 5 months ago #1. Wells, just one of the most extraordinary figures in the American history, who does receive a lot of attention in schoolbooks but not a whole lot on the landscape. Allen Guelzo:Right. So what does economics have to say about historical memorialization? Some of those factors are going to be there. They’re about making statements about who is in charge in the South. About Kevin D. Williamson June 14, 2020 6:30 AM. I think there are some people that are not as worthy of our adulation, certainly to the tune of hundreds of statues, and that other people, though they did have a record that has regrettable aspects to it, particularly on slavery, that we need to look at it as a scorecard and see that some people are worthy of admiration so long as we really do also mention and discuss and acknowledge the fact that they did participate in and uphold this institution of slavery in their day. The History of Confederate Monuments in the U.S. Confederate Bomb Plot. The light part of it is that he really becomes a major voice for reunifying the country. You could say, “He fought for the Union against slavery.” Not in the first year of the war, he didn’t. They don’t produce anything. What emerges is a more complex picture that tells its own story of changing beliefs and attitudes about how we commemorate our past. I think it does reflect in the fact that in this case it’s white nationalist, whatever you want to call it, white supremacist, neo-Nazi ideology. Confederate statues removed in Virginia, Kentucky following George Floyd's death. I think this is what Ed was getting at when he was talking about Ida Wells. Likely explanations include the northern states being comparatively wealthier after the war and thus able to afford commemorations at earlier points, as well as the country’s coalescing around a reconciliationist narrative of how the war was remembered in the lifetimes of its participants. They’ve been ruined economically. What does it mean for these statues to be maintained in our public spaces? Do we take down half of the monuments of Grant? Sometimes, they’re very generic. Ed O’Donnell: Time also gives us different perspectives on history, too. The Republican Party, led by Abraham Lincoln, won the 1860 presidential election. It “proudly honors” the state’s 3,000 sons in blue and gray “who fought at Gettysburg in defense of the causes they held so dear” and “symbolizes the aftermath of that battle and the war. Below it are the numbers of the three New York regiments in the Irish Brigade, the 63rd, 69th and 88th, above the Seal of the State of New York. The first differences between the Confederate and the Union Constitution already appear in the preamble. It’s not strictly speaking a monument to Robert E. Lee, although he is the main figure on the top of it. Not only I think is the scorecard idea a good one, I also think there’s a question of looking at the landscape and saying, “What is here already, and what should be here in the future?”. It coincided with a monument building spree across the country, including hundreds of local ceremonies and veterans reunion events. I think that captures monuments. Are we entering a time of iconoclasm, or do you think we’re going to enter a dialogue that saves us from that? But it’s not just one monument. The Great Courses: I wonder if there’s not an additional complexity in this situation with the fact that this was a civil war that ended in the messy but ultimate reunification of a country, so that in the end, we are looking back at countrymen on both sides. Here in Indianapolis in the ce3nter of the circle downtown is the Soldier’s and Sailor’s Monument. That’s not going to stop any time soon. Yet, he creates the language of natural rights that other generations of Americans will have the space in which to pour new meaning into that, so that women at Seneca Falls, for example, can take that Declaration of Independence and make it a document that is a declaration for women’s rights. The Equal Justice Institute is pursuing this historical project, but they’re really concerned also about current-day injustice. Or in the case of Robert E. Lee, to someone who was their long-dead commander, but it really is to themselves and what they went through, years and years, in some cases half a century before. Because largely, Confederate monuments were built during two key periods of American history: the beginnings of Jim Crow in the 1920s and the civil rights movement in … Protesters in Boston damaged the monument to the 54th Massachusetts Regiment, the African-American Civil War troops featured in the movie Glory. New Orleans' … It was erected in 1917, and there were an interesting set of speeches that were given. If you went to South Carolina 10 years ago, you had to ask where to find it. This time, even abolitionists and other anti-slavery figures have not been spared from the mob’s destruction. Let’s tear the thing down,” I think I’d be equally reluctant to join in, if only because of my own concern about cultural iconoclasm. He fought for a cause that was fundamentally designed to protect and perpetuate and even expand slavery on into an endless future.” There’s a question about whether or not it’s appropriate to honor somebody like that now, regardless of the motivation that went into putting his statue up. He’s not even thinking about poor white people in many respects. Another thing to think about is, when we talk about Southerners, it’s quite common when you refer to Southerners that it just means white people in the South. This period also overlapped with the Jim Crow era of state-enforced racial segregation, as well as successive waves of accompanying violence against African-Americans. Difference between Union and Confederate . Consistent with this hypothesis, other research has shown that a surge in Confederate battle flag usage coincided with the civil rights era. They formed the Confederate States of America, even before Lincoln became president on March 4, 1861. Are there union statues in the south? It’s not just fascinating, interesting stories. Today, people wandering around the Gettysburg battlefield and the monuments are really, I think for the most part, for most people, they are markers of where military units stood. We’re full of moments when unspeakable things were done. Looking at the Census-designated subsections of the United States: New England (49% vs. 25%) and the Pacific coast (44% vs. 27%) are the most likely regions to say that the Confederate flag is a sign of racism over heritage. Allen Guelzo: I hope it does. Baltimore — It has been 3½ years since Baltimore officials removed four Confederate monuments from public land. I don’t know. Jefferson’s list of positive accomplishments, and helping create a country that eventually gets around to doing the right thing, that eventually gets around to including everyone, or to the largest possible extent, in full citizenship, and Washington’s in that same category. Allen Guelzo: It has, indeed. They want to erect monuments to their youth. It actually has real power and real meaning in our current circumstances. Find out what divided the men of the Civil War, and how in many ways they were more alike than different. Watch as 13,000 Civil War Monuments Fill the U.S. Map—and Read the Chilling Inscriptions. The first military monument in the US Capitol that honors an African-American soldier is the Confederate monument at Arlington National cemetery. In 1911, the U.S. government erected a 15-foot-tall granite obelisk as a memorial to 15 Confederate prisoners of war buried in Union Cemetery. That is, the 1890s are the time when the South economically is starting to finally recover from the economic impact of the Civil War, which is to say that between 1865 and 1890, there’s not a lot of monument-building because they can’t afford it. The peak year for the construction of both types was 1911, the beginning of the 50th anniversary of the war. The fact that that’s on display there does reflect a larger political cultural shift in the last 30 years or so, but there were white nationalist, white supremacist organizations in the 1960s exerting violence and doing whatever they could in the name of maintaining white supremacy. I think that, along with voter problems, that culture problems, speech problems are also matters of concern. User Info: supercurrymax. Then when I hear discussions about Robert E. Lee from the other side, “Robert E. Lee is a symbol of white supremacy,” The reality is, Robert E. Lee could have, at Appomattox, with just one word, have turned his Army of Northern Virginia loose as a guerrilla force and sent them fleeing to the hills, fleeing to the mountains, yet Lee categorically stopped that in his tracks. I'm not going to make you a super long list, but take Vicksburg National Military Park for example. It never joined the Confederacy. Ed O’Donnell: Right, but even those flags are also interesting, because they’re part of that story as well. It was 1948, ’49, ’54, because that’s when the civil rights movement was gaining traction and it was becoming a national political issue about endorsing civil rights. Ed O’Donnell: I would add to that also that not only just remembering what happened in the past, but also seeing how what happened in the past is directly connected to the world that we live in today. Ed O’Donnell:  Right. The whole question about monuments, about memorials, about remembrance, these things are not mere historical footnotes. You see conflicting numbers, but there seem to be about 1,500 Confederate monuments of some sort, statues and memorials, throughout the country. Do we take down the monuments of Grant? Allen Guelzo: Right. In fact, there are two such monuments located in Arizona, quite far from the Confederacy, and even one in Massachusetts — which, during the Civil War, was known for being a loyal Union … By the way, it’s the same Virginia state flag as flies over the Virginia state capitol today. Protesters in Washington, DC tagged both the Lincoln Memorial and the National World War II Memorial with graffiti, and scrawled obscenities on a statue of Union admiral David G. Farragut. The Confederate-Monument Controversy Is a Democrat-vs-Democrat Question By Kevin D. Williamson. There’s a sense that Southern identity is tied to national identity in a way that can’t be untied. Sometimes we need what has happened in terms of evil to be there to remind us about how absolutely important it is to do the good, and how little we can expect the good to happen automatically. Ralph Northam, though a judge on Monday issued a … Missouri was a slave state. © 2020 American Institute for Economic ResearchPrivacy Policy, AIER is a 501(c)(3) Nonprofit registered in the US under EIN: 04-2121305. At that point, the whole idea of what particular individual it represents starts to get very vague it becomes a mass-produced thing, at which point specific means start to get very hard to pin on things. Most battlefield monuments, markers, and tablets were erected by veterans specifically for future … M ore recently, a Maryland state monument from 1994 depicts two wounded soldiers, one Union and one Confederate, helping each other off the field. You’re looking at monumentation and memorialization which is going all across the country. More than 2,100 of these come from the Union side of the Civil War, plus an additional 160 abolitionist statues and commemorations. What they really were, was a coalition of some very ideologically pointed people, democratic socialists, organizations of that sort, Triangle People’s Assembly, the Workers of the World Party. Their principal achievements are in founding the American republic, and creating a nation and creating a language, even if it was not quite intentional, like Jefferson when he writes, “All men are created equal.” He’s not thinking about slaves. The 50th anniversary of the battle of Gettysburg in 1913, for example, drew over 50,000 elderly veterans to the site. (Note: this chart excludes schools named after Abraham Lincoln, because they vastly outnumber any other Civil War-era figure on account of his popularity as a historical president. He is the author of numerous works on economic history, taxation, economic inequality, the history of slavery, and education policy in the United States. What exactly do you mean?” Because there’s more than a few souths, so whose heritage are we talking about? They tell us much, much more about the period that they went up in, that they were created in, and the people that created them. At the present, these constructions outpace the trickle of new Union and Confederate markers that occasionally appear. Can we look to another population of statues to add here? The Great Courses: One needs to, though, be in a position where you can afford ignorance. These include not only Confederate military statues and markers, but also their less-discussed counterparts on the Union side as well as a separate database of monuments to abolitionists and anti-slavery figures. Leave the Lee memorial up there, but put a Sojourner Truth memorial there, or something along those lines where they can be in conversation, and also put a new interpretive text next to the Lee monument that explains the context in which it went up. I think if you keep a scorecard and you say, “Are there things that we should honor these people for? The pattern changed though in 1954 with a sudden and sharp spike in schools named after Confederate generals and politicians. "Nowhere has the national re-examination of Confederate emblems been more riven with controversy than the Lone Star State." Confederate monuments have always been symbols of white supremacy. Return to the main Irish Brigade monument page. … History’s not supposed to be a photo album. Most were constructed in the decades following the Civil War itself, particularly around major war commemorations such as the 50th anniversary from 1911 to 1915. They make no distinction between Confederate and Union, abolitionist and pro-slavery, 15th-century figures and 20th. Several clear trends emerge from the numbers of monuments over time. That was not in 1870, 1890, 1910. By looking at the history of these monuments we see even more clearly the dangers of ignoring the legacy slavery, the points of our past when reactionary forces gained steam, and more recently some cause for hope. Instead of putting up more statues of the same, we should be putting up statues that point in different directions. The truth of the matter is that what we know about ourselves from the past informs what we are in the present, and a people who are cut off from their past are a people who have been culturally disfranchised fully as much as those who had the vote taken away. A lot of these popular insurgencies now and in the past have been driven by economic pressure and economic dislocation. Angry mobs are tearing down and defacing monuments across America. 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