Alleging that the war was merely an upper class abolitionist war to free slaves who might move north and compete for jobs and housing, the poorer classes did not welcome a draft, especially one from which a richer man could buy an exemption. [61] The Union Soldier. Union cavalry could sweep through and track down Confederate guerrillas, who no longer had places to hide and people and infrastructure to support them. In the East, opposition to the war was strongest among Irish Catholics, but also included business interests connected to the South typified by August Belmont. Union soldiers were also issued a gray wool shirt and leather brogan shoes. The Signal Corps was created and deployed for the first time, through the leadership of Albert J. Myer. By the time the rioting was over, perhaps up to 1,000 people had been killed or wounded. The high-quality wool was warm in winter but itchy and hot in the heat of summer. Eventually, it was realized, especially after the valiant effort of the 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry in the Battle of Fort Wagner, that blacks were fully able to serve as competent and reliable soldiers. It portrayed the War as a great moral crusade against a decadent Southern civilization corrupted by slavery. Lincoln's call forced the border states to choose sides, and four seceded, making the Confederacy eleven states strong. [30], Michigan was especially eager to send thousands of volunteers. Few Yankees professed to fight for racial equality, however. Kamphoefner, Walter D. "German-Americans and Civil War Politics: A Reconsideration of the Ethnocultural Thesis.". The combat arms included infantry, cavalry, artillery, and other such smaller organizations such as the United States Marine Corps, which, at some times, was detached from its navy counterpart for land based operations. For 30 years after the war the Democrats carried the burden of having opposed the martyred Lincoln, who was viewed by many as the salvation of the Union and the destroyer of slavery. These soldiers were called the color guard. Union soldiers were usually called Yankees or Bluebellies. [74] In the South, the Union army shot all the horses it did not need to keep them out of Confederate hands. Various organizational and administrative issues arose during the war, which had a major effect on subsequent military procedures. Catholics, Episcopalians, Lutherans and conservative Presbyterians generally avoided any discussion of the war, so it would not bitterly divide their membership. Confederate soldiers were called Rebels and Rebs, or simply "Johnny Reb." During the Civil War, only about 3% of the army was made up of Regular Army troops. [41] For example, its agents distributed Bibles, delivered sermons, helped with sending letters home, taught men to read and write, and set up camp libraries. Around 80,000 white men from Mississippi fought in the Confederate Army; some 500 white Mississippians fought for the Union. [25][26], The Irish were the main participants in the famous "New York Draft riots" of 1863. 16–17, Roll of Honor: Names of Soldiers who died in Defense of the Union Vol. Many never returned and the affected counties were economically devastated for years after the end of the war. Democratic candidates emphasized these fears. Furthermore, it protected American factory workers from low paid European workers, and as a major bonus attracted tens of thousands of those Europeans to immigrate to America for high wage factory and craftsman jobs.[66]. Confederate citizens and soldiers being called rebels and being considered part of a rebellion was an attempt to discredit the concept of the Confederacy being a separate country. A mob was reportedly repulsed from the offices of the staunchly pro-Union New York Tribune by workers wielding and firing two Gatling guns. Rebels. Ulysses S. Grant was the final commander of the Union Army. About 200,000 enlistments were by men born in one of the German states (although this is somewhat speculative since anyone serving from a German family tended to be identified as German regardless of where they were actually born)[citation needed]. Actually, it was comprised of several armies, to cover the many departments (geographic regions) in which the war was fought. Union logisticians employed their superior resources in overcoming commissary and quartermaster problems, but the Confederates also managed to supply their men in winter camp under more challenging conditions. 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